Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs)

This term refers to traumatic or disruptive things that happen in childhood. The original study published in 1998, of more than 17,000 members of Kaiser Permanente, looked at ten different categories of ACEs. These included physical and emotional neglect; physical, verbal and sexual abuse; parental abandonment through separation or divorce; a parent with a mental illness or substance abuse problem; and a family member in jail. Later ACE studies have included experiences such as racism and living in a violent neighborhood.

Learn more at